Identify Putative Backmutations:

This is the most difficult and unpredictable procedure in the humanisation of monoclonal antibodies. It is also the area which throws much light on protein structure and function. A solid body of data for helping to identify strategic alterations (using the sequence search form) is available in the list of previously humanised antibodies.

Having decided on the residues to backmutate, return to the question of human acceptor frameworks. It is not unlikely that an overlooked human framework may actually contain the backmutations which are to be retained. If this is the case, then there is no need to introduce residues from the source sequence, thus making the humanised antibody more "human".

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